Hyperpigmentation occurs when there is an increase in melanin content in the skin. It can be localised i.e. limited to a certain area or it can be diffuse i.e. occurring all over the body. Localised form of hyperpigmentation can happen as a result of injury or inflammation from conditions such as Acne, contact dermatitis, lupus etc known as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or Melasma. Diffuse generally results from a systemic disease, drug or neoplasm. Localised hyperpigmentation like PIH and melasma can lead to a lot of psychological distress  with skin type IV and above being particularly susceptible . It is not only important to find the cause of pigmentation in order to arrest further progression but it is also important to treat the pigmented lesions. Further prevention should advocate the use of daily sun protection with sunscreen agents and other sun avoidance measures.